11. Surveillance, Privacy, And Intelligence Agencies


HE CYPHERNOMICON: Cypherpunks FAQ and More, Version 0.666, 1994-09-10, Copyright Timothy C. May. All rights reserved. See the detailed disclaimer. Use short sections under "fair use" provisions, with appropriate credit, but don't put your name on my words.

11.2. SUMMARY: Surveillance, Privacy, And Intelligence Agencies .2.1. Main Points

11.2.2. Connections to Other Sections

11.2.3. Where to Find Additional Information

11.2.4. Miscellaneous Comments

11.3. Surveillance and Privacy

11.3.1. We've come a long way from Secretary of State Stimpson's famous "Gentlemen do not read other gentlemen's mail" statement. It is now widely taken for granted that Americans are to be monitored, surveilled, and even wiretapped by the various intelligence agencies. The FBI, the National Security Agency, the CIA, the National Reconnaissance Office, etc. (Yes, these groups have various charters telling them who they can spy on, what legalities they have to meet, etc. But they still spy. And there's not an uproar--the "What have you got to hide?" side of the American privacy dichotomy.)

11.3.2. Duncan Frissell reminds us of Justice Jackson's 1948 dissenting opinion in some case:

11.3.3. "What is the "surveillance state"?"

11.3.4. "Why would the government monitor my communications?" - "Because of economics and political stability...You can

build computers and monitoring devices in secret, deploy them in secret, and listen to everything. To listen to everything with bludgeons and pharmaceuticals would not only cost more in labor and equipment, but also engender a radicalizing backlash to an actual police state." [Eric Hughes, 1994-01-26]

11.3.5. "How much surveillance is actually being done today?"

11.3.6. "Does the government want to monitor economic transactions?"

11.3.7. A danger of the surveillance society: You can't hide

11.3.8. "Should I refuse to give my Social Security Number to those who ask for it?"

11.3.9. "What is 'Privacy 101'?"

11.3.10. Cellular phones are trackable by region...people are getting phone calls as they cross into new zones, "welcoming" them

11.3.11. Ubiquitous use of SSNs and other personal I.D.

11.3.12. cameras that can recognize faces are placed in many public places, e.g., airports, ports of entry, government buildings

11.3.13. speculation (for the paranoids)

11.3.14. Diaries are no longer private

11.4. U.S. Intelligence Agencies: NSA, FinCEN, CIA, DIA, NRO, FBI

11.4.1. The focus here is on U.S. agencies, for various reasons. Most Cypherpunks are currently Americans, the NSA has a dominant role in surveillance technology, and the U.S. is the focus of most current crypto debate. (Britain has the GCHQ, Canada has its own SIGINT group, the Dutch have..., France has DGSE and

so forth, and...)

11.4.2. Technically, not all are equal. And some may quibble with my calling the FBI an "intelligence agency." All have surveillance and monitoring functions, albeit of different flavors.

11.4.3. "Is the NSA involved in domestic surveillance?"

11.4.4. "What will be the effects of widespread crypto use on intelligence collection?"

11.4.5. "What will the effects of crypto on conventional espionage?"

11.4.6. NSA budget

11.4.7. FINCEN, IRS, and Other Economic Surveillance

11.4.8. "Why are so many computer service, telecom, and credit agency companies located near U.S. intelligence agency sites?"

11.4.9. Task Force 157, ONI, Kissinger, Castle Bank, Nugan Hand Bank, CIA

11.4.10. NRO building controversy

11.4.11. SIGINT listening posts

11.4.12. "What steps is the NSA taking?"

11.5. Surveillance in Other Countries

11.5.1. Partly this overlaps on the earlier discussion of crypto laws in other countries.

11.5.2. Major Non-U.S. Surveillance Organizations

11.5.3. They are very active, though they get less publicity than do the American CIA, NSA, FBI, etc.

11.6. Surveillance Methods and Technology

11.6.1. (some of this gets speculative and so may not be to everyone's liking)

11.6.2. "What is TEMPEST and what's the importance of it?"

11.6.3. What are some of the New Technologies for Espionage and Surveillance

11.6.4. Digital Telephony II is a major step toward easier surveillance

11.6.5. Citizen tracking

11.6.6. Cellular phones are trackable by region...people are getting phone calls as they cross into new zones, "welcoming" them

11.6.7. coming surveillance, Van Eck, piracy, vans

11.6.8. wiretaps

11.7. Surveillance Targets

11.7.1. Things the Government May Monitor

11.7.2. Economic Intelligence (Spying on Corporations, Foreign and Domestic)

11.7.3. War on Drugs and Money Laundering is Causing Increase in Surveillance and Monitoring

11.8.1. "Can my boss monitor my work?" "Can my bankruptcy in 1980 be used to deny me a loan?" etc.

11.8.2. Theme: to protect some rights, invasion of privacy is being justified

11.8.3. Government ID cards, ability to fake identities

11.8.4. Legalities of NSA surveillance

11.9. Dossiers and Data Bases

11.9.1. "The dossier never forgets"

11.9.2. "What about the privacy issues with home shopping, set-top boxes, advertisers, and the NII?"

11.9.3. credit agencies

11.9.4. selling of data bases, linking of records...

11.10. Police States and Informants

11.10.1. Police states need a sense of terror to help magnify the power or the state, a kind of "shrechlichkeit," as the Nazis used to call it. And lots of informants. Police states need willing accomplices to turn in their neighbors, or even their parents, just as little Pavel Morozov became a Hero of the Soviet People by sending his parents to their deaths in Stalin's labor camps for the crime of expressing negative opinions about the glorious State.

11.10.2. Children are encouraged in federally-mandated D.A.R.E. programs to become Junior Narcs, narcing their parents the cops and counselors who come into their schools.

11.10.3. The BATF has a toll-free line (800-ATF-GUNS) for neighbors who one thinks are violating the federal gun

out of tips by spouses and ex-spouses...they have the inside dope, the motive, and the means - a sobering thought even in the age of crypto

11.11. Privacy Laws

11.11.1. Will proposed privacy laws have an effect?

11.11.2. "Why are things like the "Data Privacy Laws" so bad?"

11.11.3. on the various "data privacy laws"

11.11.4. "What do Cypherpunks think about this?"

11.11.5. Assertions to data bases need to be checked (credit, reputation, who said what, etc.)

11.12. National ID Systems

11.12.1. "National ID cards are just the driver's licenses on the Information Superhighway." [unknown...may have been my coining]

11.12.2. "What's the concern?"

11.12.3. Insurance and National Health Care will Produce the "National ID" that will be Nearly Unescapable

11.12.4. National ID Card Arguments

11.12.5. "What are some concerns about Universal ID Cards?"

11.12.6. Postal Service trial balloon for national ID card

11.12.7. Scenario for introduction of national ID cards

11.12.8. Comments on national ID cards

11.13. National Health Care System Issues

11.13.1. Insurance and National Health Care will Produce the "National ID" that will be Nearly Unescapable

11.13.2. I'm less worried that a pharmacist will add me to some database he keeps than that my doctor will be instructed to compile a dossier to government standards and then zip it off over the Infobahn to the authorities.

11.13.3. Dangers and issues of National Health Care Plan

11.14. Credentials

11.14.1. This is one of the most overlooked and ignored aspects of cryptology, especially of Chaum's work. And no one in Cypherpunks or anywhere else is currently working on "blinded credentials" for everyday use.

11.14.2. "Is proof of identity needed?"

11.14.3. "Do we need "is-a-person" credentials for things like votes on the Net?"

11.14.4. Locality, credentials, validations

11.15. Records of all UseNet postings

11.15.1. (ditto for CompuServe, GEnie, etc.) will exist

11.15.2. "What kinds of monitoring of the Net is possible?"

11.15.3. Records: note that private companies can do the same thing, except that various "right to privacy" laws may try to interfere with this

11.15.4. "How can you expect that something you sent on the UseNet to several thousand sites will not be potentially held against you? You gave up any pretense of privacy when you broadcast your opinions-and even detailed declarations of your activities-to an audience of millions. Did you really think that these public messages weren't being filed away? Any private citizen would find it almost straightforward to sort a measly several megabytes a day by keywords, names of posters, etc." [I'm not sure if I wrote this, or if someone else who I forgot to make a note of did]

11.15.5. this issue is already coming up: a gay programmer who was laid-off discussed his rage on one of the gay boards and said he was thinking of turning in his former employer for widespread copying of Autocad software...an Autodesk employee answered him with "You just did!"

11.15.6. corporations may use GREP and On Location-like tools to search public nets for any discussion of themselves or their products

11.15.7. the 100% traceability of public postings to UseNet and other bulletin boards is very stifling to free expression and becomes one of the main justifications for the use of anonymous (or pseudononymous) boards and nets

11.16. Effects of Surveillance on the Spread of Crypto

11.16.1. Surveillance and monitoring will serve to increase the use of encryption, at first by people with something to hide, and

then by others

11.16.2. for those in sensitive positions, the availability of new bugging methods will accelerate the conversion to secure systems based on encrypted telecommunications and the avoidance of voice-based systems

11.16.3. Surveillance Trends

11.17. Loose Ends

11.17.1. USPS involvement in electronic mail, signatures, authentication (proposed in July-August, 1994)

11.17.2. the death threats

11.17.3. False identities...cannot just be "erased" from the computer memory banks. The web of associations, implications, rule firings...all mean that simple removal (or insertion of a false identity) produces discontinuities, illogical developments, holes...history is not easily changed.


Revision #1
Created 23 June 2022 03:54:47 by c0mmando
Updated 23 June 2022 03:55:14 by c0mmando